The mushroom season actually starts early in the year. For many people, mushroom picking is a popular activity and a good way to spend time in nature. They can be found at different locations, which can often be deduced from their names. But not every mushroom (fungi) that you find outside and that looks delicious is actually edible.

Many edible mushrooms have poisonous doubles 

Unless you are a mushroom connoisseur, you cannot tell whether a mushroom (fungi) is edible or not. Many species of mushrooms that are native and edible here have very similar looking poisonous doubles, making it even more difficult. Basically, you should only collect mushrooms that you can identify without a doubt or consult an expert. In addition, it should be noted that some species in the wild may only be collected in exceptional cases and only for personal use. When which mushrooms can be collected depends on the season and the season is almost all year round. Some can be collected in just a few days or weeks and others over several months. But which mushrooms (fungi) are native here, edible, how can you recognize them and when are they in season?

Season from March/April to May

Speisemorchel (Morchella esculenta)

Morels can be recognized by a honey-colored or brownish-yellow, rounded or egg-shaped hat. It has a honeycomb, irregularly ribbed structure. The stem is white to light yellow, thickened at the bottom and completely hollow. The flesh is white at the breaking points, waxy and very brittle. Smell and taste are pleasant. There is a risk of confusion with all other morels, which are all edible.

Note: Mushrooms of the genus Morchella have become rare and should be protected.

Spitzmorchel (Morchella conica s.l.)

  • Morels can be recognized by their pointed, cone-shaped hat
  • Brownish, grey-brown, olive-brown or dark brown in colour
  • Flesh pink when very young
  • Fruit body has pronounced longitudinal ribs
  • They are connected by short transverse ribs
  • Interstices are honeycombed
  • Cap and stem fused together
  • Stem initially whitish, sometimes flesh-colored
  • It is round, cylindrical and slightly grooved lengthwise
  • Flesh whitish, waxy, thin and fragile
  • Taste mild, odorless

From March/April to November

Schopftintling (Coprinus comatus)

These mushrooms stand out because of their elongated, cylindrical and scaly hat. It is whitish, scaled, later with black lamellae and a small brownish cap as a hat tip. Flesh and stalk are initially white, later reddish and deliquescent black with age. The stalk has a permanent, movable ring, is fibrous, slightly bulbous at the base. The flesh is thin, white, soft and deliquescent with age. Smell and taste are pleasant.

From May/June to September/October

Anischampignon (Agaricus arvensis)

  • An excellent edible mushroom
  • Initially white, globular and later yellowish
  • Flat-topped agaric
  • Slightly flaky, silky matt surface
  • Turns yellow when pressed
  • Flesh and stalk are whitish, turning yellowish to the touch
  • Lamellae grey-whitish or pale pink-grey when young
  • Later pink, chocolate brown with age
  • Stem is long, slender, with a pink tip
  • Bulbous at the base, partly slightly crooked bulbous
  • Can be confused with edible, crooked anise sapling
  • Aniseed mushroom smells like aniseed, like Christmas cookies
  • Has a mild taste

Birch fungus (Leccinum scabrum)

The birch mushroom from the boletus family can be recognized by its brownish, finely felted hat. It is matt when dry and greasy when wet. The flesh is initially white and firm, later becoming off-white and spongy and very watery when it rains. The stem is white-fleshed, black-scaled, slender, somewhat brittle and tapered at the top. Young specimens are particularly tasty.

Note: The birch mushroom is protected and may only be collected in small quantities for personal use.

Flockenstieliger Hexenröhrling

Cooked, the boletus is said to be a real delicacy, raw it is incompatible. It can be recognized by its thick-fleshed, dark-brown, velvety cap and yellow, red-flaky stalk. What is special about it is the blue coloring of the flesh when cut or pressed, both in the cap and in the stalk. The coloring has no effect on the taste. It is pleasantly mild and the smell is unobtrusive.

Pfifferling (Cantharellus cibarius)

Chanterelles are also native and edible here. They are among the most popular edible mushrooms. Cap and stem are yolk to pale yellow. Initially hemispherical, it later opens up like a funnel. The brim of the hat is initially rolled in and then wavy and bayous. The pulp, which is firm when dry, is yellowish on the edge and otherwise rather whitish, and the stem is fibrous. The chanterelle exudes a spicy scent and has a slightly peppery taste.

Note: This mushroom (Fungi) may only be collected in small quantities for personal use.

Riesenbovist (Langermannia gigantea)

The fruiting body of the stalkless giant puffball can be up to 60 cm wide and weigh up to 11 kg. It is rounded or flattened, smooth, white for a long time, then greyish-yellow, yellowish-brownish and finally brown. The initially white fruit mass, which turns olive-brown as it ripens, is firm at first and becomes increasingly softer to powdery and gradually disintegrates. The taste is rather bland and the smell is very unpleasant.

Steinpilz/Fichtensteinpilz (Boletus edulis)

  • Porcini , one of the most well-known edible mushrooms
  • Native to spruce and pine forests, mixed and deciduous forests
  • Recognizable by its suede-like, hazelnut to dark brown cap
  • Initially hemispherical and later flattened
  • Flesh is white with reddish tinge under the skin
  • Peduncle six centimeters thick, white-grey at the base
  • In the upper part, brownish raised vein network
  • Taste and smell pleasantly mushroomy
  • Can be confused with other edible mushrooms, such as porcini and bitter boletus

Wiesenchampignon (Agaricus campestris)

The first thing you notice about the meadow mushroom is its white, silky matt, thick-fleshed cap that is up to 12 cm wide. First it is hemispherical and later flat. With age, the skin turns slightly brownish. The stem, which is up to two centimeters thick, is also white and silky smooth. The lamellae, which are pink at first and turn chocolate-brown with age, are also striking.

From June/July to November

Krause Glucke (Sparassis crispa)

The Krause Glocke is native to the low mountain ranges of Central Europe. Even if it doesn’t look like it at first glance, this mushroom is edible. The mushroom looks like a large ocher yellow bath sponge, which is easy to recognize. The fruiting body is whitish when young, then takes on a yellowish color and brownish when old. It can grow up to 30 cm wide and weigh a maximum of 5 kg. As long as the mushroom is still white or yellowish-white, it tastes great.

Chestnut boletus (Xerocomus badius)

The hat of the brown cap is hemispherical when young, later irregularly curved, finely felted, velvety and chestnut brown. The initially white and later olive-yellow tubes turn a strong blue color when pressure is applied. The stem is brown to yellowish and paler than the cap. This fungus is also native to Central Europe and grows mainly in acidic coniferous forests. It smells slightly sour and has a nutty, mushroomy taste.

Sand-Röhrling (Suillus variegatus)

The sand boletus is native to northern and central Europe. He has a hemispherical, later convex hat with a felt-like matt surface that wilts with age. He is yellowish-grey to olivocker. The tubes are darker and difficult to separate from the meat. The stalk is lighter than the cap, brownish-orange-yellow, and watery marbled. The smell is a bit unpleasant and the taste is mild.

Stockschwämmchen (Kuehneromyces mutabilis)

  • Small to medium-sized agarics that grow in clusters
  • Caps honey to ocher yellow when dry
  • Moist, cinnamon to tan
  • Cap initially slightly convex, later spreading flat
  • Clearly lighter in the middle as it dries from the crown
  • Hat brim is thin, translucent and slightly fluted
  • Upper layer of skin smooth, rarely covered with small scales
  • Shiny and slippery when wet
  • A small membranous ring separates the upper and lower parts of the stalk
  • Upper part is light
  • Lower area darker, with protruding scales
  • Flesh yellowish, thin, only slightly thicker in the middle of the cap
  • Brownish in stem
  • Odor mushroom-spicy, taste pleasantly mild
  • Inedible when raw

From July to October

Habichtspilz (Sarcodon imbricatus)

The goshawk mushroom is one of the brown spores that are also native to Central Europe. The domed and later spread hat is grey-brown and sunken in the middle. It can be recognized particularly well by its dark brown, coarse, sparse and upright scales that darken towards the tip. The lamellae are small, closely spaced spines. The stem is grey-brown, unevenly thick and firm. The hawk mushroom smells spicy and tastes mild, bitter with age.

Black-headed Milkcap (Lactarius lignyotus)

Even if this mushroom (fungi) does not look appetizing, it is one of the most popular edible mushrooms. Its cap is brown to black and has a funnel-shaped lowered center. The velvety matt surface feels partly wrinkled and structured. The whitish lamellae form a clear contrast to the cap and the brown stem. A watery milky juice emerges from the white pulp, which turns salmon pink in the air. The mushroom is odorless and tastes pleasantly mushroomy.

Riesenschirmling syn. Parasolpilz (Macrolepiota procera)

This agaric, up to 25 cm wide, is spherical, later convex to flat. The hat surface is creamy white with large brownish scales and small bumps. The flesh in the hat is soft, tender and slightly spongy, while the stem is tough, woody and fibrous. There is a thick, torn, sliding ring on the handle. The smell is pleasant and the taste nutty.

From August to November

True charmer (Lactarius deterrimus Gröger)

The Edelreizker is native to coniferous and mixed forests. Its cap, which is up to 20 cm tall, is arched, later indented to funnel-shaped. It has a wavy edge and a slightly sticky skin. The lamellae are mottled light orange and later green. The stem is also orange-red.

Note: Its reddish milk distinguishes the milkcap from other poisonous and inedible milkcaps.

Herbsttrompete (Craterellus cornucopioides)

One finds this valued spice mushroom mainly in beech forests. The hat is funnel-shaped, gray-black or brown-black, thin-fleshed and hollow throughout. Above with a trumpet-like folded rim that later becomes wavy. The surface is felty to scaly in texture and the exterior is smooth and light gray. This mushroom (fungi) smells faintly aromatic and tastes mild, somewhat earthy or bland.

winter mushrooms

Austernseitling (Pleurotus ostreatus)

The mussel-like, gray-blue or dark-grey oyster mushroom needs sub-zero temperatures in order to be able to develop fruiting bodies. The mushroom grows in tufts with a stalk on the side. It develops from the whitish stem, which is usually only indicated. The flesh of young mushrooms (fungi) is white, soft and elastic, while older ones are tough and fibrous. The whitish lamellae later turn yellowish. Pleurotus ostreatus has a spicy odor and mild taste.

Tip: The oyster mushroom can also be cultivated as a cultivated mushroom.

Frostschneckling (Hygrophorus hypotheus)

This popular edible mushroom has a thick, slimy, light to dark olive-brown cap with yellowish tones in places. The center is darker and deepens with age, with a small hump. The flesh is firm, white-yellow, the lamellae first white and then yellow to yolk yellow. It has a slender, pale yellow, initially full and later hollow stem. The Frostschneckling is a very tasty edible mushroom.

Tip: This mushroom can also be eaten raw.

Samtfußrübling (Flammulina velutipes)

  • The cap of the velvet foot is honey yellow to orange-red
  • First bell-shaped, later spreading and mostly wavy
  • Velvety surface when young
  • Aged smooth and thin fleshed
  • Lamellae whitish to light yellow, dense and velvety
  • Flesh white or pale yellow
  • Tender at first and tougher with age
  • Stalk gummy and always ringless
  • Initially tender, later hollow, tough and fibrous
  • Hats mild and tasty
  • Stalks more suitable for making mushroom powder
Note: The velvet foot root bears a resemblance to the edible mutabilis, but can also be confused with fungi such as the poisonous green-leaved brimstone.

Violetter Rötelritterling (Lepista nuda)

The cap of this mushroom, which can be up to 20 cm in size, is hemispherical when young, later flattened and wavy. It has a lilac-violet to pink-violet, brownish color that turns brownish in the middle with age. The flesh is purple to whitish purple. The stalk, thickened at the base, is pale lilac and glabrous, with a dusty white and fibrous surface. The Violet Red Knight exudes a perfume-like, pleasantly spicy scent and has a mild, nutty taste. In its raw state it is poisonous.

All year round season

Judasohr (Hirneola auricula-judae)

Unlike most mushroom species, Judas Ear can be found all year round. He can be recognized by his brown, veined hat, which has an ear-shaped appearance. Its flesh is brownish in color, translucent, tough and gelatinous. The stem is short, brown, fused with the cap or absent entirely. The Judas ear can be eaten raw or cooked. Its taste is rather mild and gelatinous, the smell is neutral to musty-earthy.

Tip: This mushroom is considered a vital or medicinal mushroom in naturopathy and traditional Chinese medicine.

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