Boletus mushrooms are a type of mushroom in which the hats are spongy. Tube mushrooms are poisonous only in rare cases. Beginners love the edible boletus due to easy identification.

The brown and red caps

The light colored handle is typical for Brown and Red Caps. Both types of mushrooms are very popular as edible mushrooms. Taste and smell are pleasant. The flesh of the mushrooms varies in color.

Birkenrotkappe (Leccinum versipelle)

  • is referred to as a heather red cap or black-scaled red cap
  • Part of the thick boletus family
  • grows up to 20 cm
  • Hat is between 6 and 20 cm tall
  • Tubes of mushrooms are yellowish, grayish and light
  • whitish stem and black grain
  • pleasant smell
  • popular as an edible mushroom

Eichenrotkappe (Leccinum aurantiacum)

  • Oak red cap is known under the names oak roughfoot and deciduous forest red cap
  • yellow to orange cap
  • whitish stem with protruding scales
  • lives mostly under aspens
  • widespread in Mediterranean and temperate regions in Europe
  • popular edible mushroom that is under nature protection

Leccinum piceinum

  • brown-red hat of mushrooms
  • Stem with dense scales in the lower part
  • lives mainly under spruces
  • mild and slightly sour taste

Common birch fungus (Leccinum scabrum)

  • the common birch fungus is known under the names capuchin, birch boletus or goat fungus
  • Hat is 5-15 cm wide
  • Skin is gray to reddish brown
  • relatively difficult when wet
  • Stem is between 5-15 cm long
  • spongy and watery flesh
  • Meat is black and dark when cooked
  • pleasant mushroom smell

Maronen-Röhrling (Imleria badia)

  • dark brown color
  • brown to yellow stem
  • Stalk is paler than cap of mushrooms
  • Color of the tube changes over the years
  • when pressure is applied, the tubes turn blue
  • lives mainly in spruce forests
  • Risk of confusion with porcini mushrooms


The red-footed boletes stand out because of their slender structure. The mushrooms remain dry, the stalk is very soft. The mild taste and the felt skin are typical features.

True Red-footed Stingray (Xerocomellus chrysenteron)

  • known as the common red-footed boletus
  • different variations of the mushroom species
  • dull and cracked hat
  • Hat is about 3 to 7 cm tall
  • Cap is yellow to olive brown
  • yellowish tubes, the color of which changes over the years
  • thin stem shape with red color
  • Taste and consistency change adversely with age

False red foot (Xerocomellus porosporus)

  • known as Lusty Red-Footed Boletus
  • mild and sour taste
  • hazel skin
  • felty structure
  • gray to yellow stem
  • lives in mixed forests

Herbstrotfuß (Xerocomellus pruinatus)

  • known as the frosted red-footed boletus
  • sour taste
  • brownish hat
  • felty structure
  • Stalk with red dots
  • yellow tubes of mushrooms
  • lives in mixed forests

The porcini mushrooms

Porcini mushrooms are the most popular edible mushrooms in the world. These belong to the thick boletus genus. Numerous species fall under the term boletus . These are often difficult to distinguish from one another. The meat is relatively firm to the bite. Porcini mushrooms usually grow near deciduous forests.

Birch porcini (Boletus betulicola)

  • popular type of porcini mushrooms
  • pleasant fragrance aroma and delicious taste
  • Hat in different shades of brown
  • moist structure and greasy surface
  • brown stem
  • lives mainly in deciduous forests

Oak boletus (Boletus aestivalis)

  • edible boletus in the raw state
  • fibrous hat of varying shades of brown
  • brown stem
  • The color of the tubes changes over time
  • found mostly in deciduous forests

Spruce boletus (Boletus edulis)

  • raw consumption possible
  • Hat in different shades of brown, border is yellow-white
  • white stem with light brownish nuances
  • lives mainly in mixed forests
  • delicious mushroom flavor

Black-skinned Stone Mushroom (Boletus aereus)

  • known as bronze boletus
  • edible mushroom species
  • rarely occurs in nature
  • dark brown hat with light brown spots
  • lives preferably in oak forests

The grease mixers

Tube fungi are divided into large families. Lubricants are one of these families. The various species are popular edible mushrooms that impress with their mild and slightly sour taste. The flesh of the tubular mushrooms is comparatively soft. With advancing age, the mushrooms become increasingly greasy. The boletes often grow on certain trees.

Butterpilz (Suillus luteus)

  • sour taste
  • brown and shiny hat
  • slimy structure
  • lemon-yellow tubes typical of the butter mushroom
  • not suitable for sensitive connoisseurs
  • lives mainly directly under pine trees

Golden Orchid (Suillus grevillei)

  • known as golden yellow larch boletus
  • Hat becomes progressively flatter over the years
  • Hat diameter between 5 and 15 cm
  • golden yellow color of the hat
  • smooth and slimy skin
  • edible variant – it is better to separate the skin before eating
  • lives under larches

Sandröhrling (Suillus variegatus)

  • known as velvet boletus or millet mushroom
  • mild and delicious aroma
  • yellow hat with grainy skin
  • roughened and matt structure
  • lives under the pines
  • yellowish stem

More tubular mushrooms

Some tubular mushrooms cannot be assigned to a specific genus. Despite similarities to the porcini mushrooms, they are separate species. The flesh is firmer and light yellow in color.

Hexenröhrling (Neoboletus luridiformis / Suillellus queletii)

  • red stem with red pores
  • is called a gypsy
  • blue coloring of the flesh
  • Slightly toxic when raw
  • edible variant after cooking
  • tastefully
  • There are two known distinct varieties: the smooth-stemmed and the flake-stemmed kind
  • grows under conifers

Kornblumen-Röhrling (Gyroporus cyanescens)

  • rare and edible species
  • Turns blue like a cornflower when touched
  • Hat is 5-10 cm wide
  • lemon yellow color at the hat
  • whitish to pale yellow pores
  • pale flesh
  • occurs on sandy soils
Note: The blue discoloration that occurs when pressure is applied disappears again during preparation. Then the meat takes on a light yellow color.

Pfefferröhrling (Chalciporus piperatus)

  • known as peppery dwarf boletus
  • belongs to the small mushroom species
  • Hat is between 2 and 7 cm tall
  • straight stem with a size of 3-6 cm
  • yellow-brown coloring
  • occurs especially in coniferous forests
  • is ideal for seasoning

Goat’s lip (Xerocomus subtomentosus)

  • known as felty boletes
  • grey-brown hat
  • felty structure
  • mild aroma
  • long and slender stem
  • lives mainly in mixed forests

frequently asked Questions

There are not only edible mushrooms. Some variants are poisonous. These species are very rare in nature. No boletus mushroom species is deadly.

On the underside of the cap of the mushrooms there are so-called tubes, which are also known as sponges.

The boletus species belong to different families. Boletes are among the fungi of the thick boletus relatives (Boletaceae) and smear boletus relatives (Suillaceae).

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