The terrace is “the most important room in the garden”, in or on which there is far more family life than in the rest of the garden. That is why laying patio slabs requires some thought, there are several methods of paving the patio surface with slabs. Here you will find an overview with instructions on the various options for laying terrace slabs. The preparation for laying the terrace slabs is initially the same regardless of the planned type of installation and the selected terrace slabs.

The substrate for laying terrace slabs 

You may already have a concrete surface on your terrace; this sub-surface can be used directly as a base for the terrace slabs if it is intact. If the concrete surface is very old, it would be better to check carefully whether there are any cracks or crevices anywhere. These would then have to be closed first, otherwise problems with moisture or frost could arise later. In addition, you must of course make sure that there is a gradient for the water drainage, but this is almost always the case, especially with old concrete surfaces. If you have caught one of the exceptions, you would have to apply a screed with a corresponding slope before every thought of laying terrace slabs.

If the terrace area is in front of a new building and consists only of earth, you may first have to create the smooth subsurface required for laying. Sometimes the terrace area has been so eagerly driven by construction machinery that they have “compacted the terrace area” for you. Then you would only have to remove the existing unevenness and check whether the horizontal or slope is correct and then perhaps go over again with the vibrator before the base layer for the terrace slabs can be applied.

In the worst case, the terrace area consists of very loose soil, which must first be thoroughly compacted before you can continue building or laying. Once this smooth surface has been created, you have several different options for laying your terrace slabs: Laying takes place either on a very water-permeable bed made of chippings, on slab bearings or mortar, with different coatings depending on the substrate.

Laying terrace slabs on concrete in a gravel bed: Prepare the substrate

  • First, the grit is applied to the concrete slab as an installation bed, the layer should have about 5 cm later.
  • It should have a grain size of 2/5 mm, when the layer is on the ground, it is peeled off with a slope of approx. 2% away from the house.
  • After peeling off, the level surface should be secured by a provisional edge made of wooden slats, over which you can also lay the batter board when laying.
  • If edge protection with special metal profiles is planned, these can perhaps also be used now.
  • The terrace slabs are then laid on this layer, the joints remain open with this type of installation.
  • After laying, the edges are secured against slipping with the metal profiles just mentioned, galvanized perforated metal angles or earth walls.
  • If you use metal profiles, you would have to pay attention to whether there are drainage facilities for water or whether they are drilled in.

Laying terrace slabs on concrete in a mortar bed: Prepare the substrate

If the subfloor is really smooth, you could also lay the terrace slabs on a bed of mortar. Here the terrace slabs are placed on a point of mortar at each corner and in the middle of the slab and then brought to the desired height using a rubber hammer. The mortar to be used here should be a ready-made thick-bed adhesive mortar that sets sufficiently quickly, but still allows corrections.

This laying method is only for the really experienced do-it-yourselfer. At the same time, you have to make sure that the terrace slabs are correctly positioned horizontally and that you keep an eye on the joint width of 3 – 5 mm. Here, the laying surface may only be loaded after the mortar has completely set.

Lay terrace slabs on solid earth in a bed of gravel: prepare the substrate

You can also lay in a bed of gravel on a solid earth substrate, but that in the bed of gravel is applied much thicker than when laying on concrete:

  • The installation area must first be excavated, 20 cm plus the depth of the terrace slabs.
  • After excavation, apply a 20 cm thick layer of a gravel-sand mixture grain size 0/32 or gravel base layer grain size 0/45.
  • When this base layer is applied, a slope of 2% can be created away from the building.
  • This base course is then compacted with a roller or a vibrator (better).
  • Now a 5 cm thick installation bed is applied, e.g. B. from chippings grain size 2/5.
  • This layer is being peeled off, the laying can be done along a batter board.
  • Here, too, the terrace slabs are laid with joint gaps of 3 – 5 mm, which remain open.

Lay terrace slabs on slab supports without a bed

If the terrace surface has a firm and smooth subsurface, terrace tiles are now often laid on tile supports without being inserted into a bed. Such laying has a number of advantages:

  • The laid panels can easily be removed or replaced at any time later.
  • This is initially advantageous if the panels have been stained with substances that are difficult to remove (e.g. paint).
  • In addition, the area underneath can be cleaned if necessary.
  • If there are installations under the terrace slabs, these can be accessed for control purposes.
  • Emerging water can flow away unhindered and does not form puddles that eventually smell bad.
  • Während des Verlegens lassen sich Bodenunebenheiten ausgleichen, indem unter die Plattenlager passende Scheiben gelegt werden.
  • Diese Stelzlager werden z. B. aus Recycling-Material angeboten, das für eine optimale Trennung von Platte und feuchtem Untergrund sorgt.
  • Die Verlegung auf Plattenlagern ist recht einfach und ziemlich kostengünstig.
  • Die Plattenlager hemmen ein wenig die Laufgeräusche.
  • Bei dieser losen Verlegung gibt es keine Frostprobleme, da die Terrassenplatten keinen direkten Bodenkontakt haben.

Für die lose Verlegung auf Plattenlagern sind nur bestimmte Terrassenplatten geeignet, sie müssen ein ausreichendes Gewicht haben. Solche Terrassenplatten werden als Natursteinplatten aus Granit, Schiefer, Kalkstein, Basalt, Sandstein und Quarzit angeboten. Aber auch aus Beton, aus Kunststein, aus Feinsteinzeug und als frostsichere keramische Platten, und ständig kommen neue Terrassenplatte dazu, die ein ausreichendes Gewicht haben, oft schon aufgrund ihrer beachtlichen Größe, sehr große Platten sind zunehmend gefragt.

Terrassenplatten zuschneiden

Bei fast jedem Terrassenbelag kommen Sie irgendwann in die Situation, dass einige Terrassenplatten zugeschnitten werden müssen. Die meisten Platten lassen sich mit dem Winkelschleifer mit Diamanttrennscheibe bearbeiten, Sie sollten die Platte erst wässern und dann rund um anzeichnen, wo sie getrennt werden soll. Dann schneiden Sie die Platte zuerst auf der Rückseite ein, dann auf der Vorderseite, bis sich die Terrassenplatte sauber teilt.

Die Teilstücke sollten gleich nach dem Durchschneiden mit klarem Wasser abgewaschen werden, sonst könnte der Schleifstaub Flecken verursachen. Denken Sie außerdem daran, geschnittene Platten so zu verlegen, dass die Schnittkante in Richtung Haus zeigt, so fällt sie wegen des Gefälles nicht auf.

Die Terrassenplatten selbst verlegen

Wenn der Untergrund fertig vorbereitet ist bzw. die gewünschte Verlegung entschieden ist, können die Terrassenplatten verlegt werden, folgendes ist zu beachten:

  • Wenn Sie farbliche abweichende Randsteine einsetzen, beginnen Sie mit diesen, an einer Seite.
  • Die eigentlichen Pflastersteine werden immer von einer Ecke ausgehend in die Fläche hinein verlegt.
  • Wenn Sie ein bestimmtes Muster geplant haben, kann es sein, dass dieses eine andere Vorgehensweise erfordert.
  • Bei Verlegung auf einem Plattenlager sollten Sie die Herstelleranleitung befragen, hier gibt es einige verschiedene Modelle.
  • Bei Verlegung im Bett wird immer ein Stein ins Bett gelegt und mit einem Gummihammer gut festgeklopft.
  • Der nächste Stein wird einfach unter Einhaltung der richtigen Fugenbreite daneben angeordnet.
  • The recommended joint widths for terrace slabs are 3 to 5 millimeters.
  • So that it really is the right joint width, you should have a joint trowel with you for leveling.
  • Even if you have a very good sense of proportion, even the tenth fugue can “fool” you like an optical illusion.
  • Cross spacers are also available for a number of terrace tiles, which ensure an even gap between the joints and remain in the joints after installation.
  • You should also have a spirit level or a guideline with you, with which you can regularly check the horizontal.
  • When the slabs are in place, joint sand suitable for the base course is poured in and slurried with water.
  • Now you can compact with a vibrator, afterwards it is grouted and grouted again and then cleaned.

There are few limits to the choice of terrace slabs today

There are various stones that can be made frost-proof and laid as terrace slabs.

These include small grid slabs made of concrete, 20 x 10 cm, sandstone-colored, brown, gray or dark gray, simple, simple (and inexpensive) concrete pavement slabs of 50 x 50 cm and a whole range of imaginatively colored terrace slabs measuring 40 x 40 cm , also made of concrete (black-white, red, gray-black, terracotta-colored, red-brown etc.). There are exposed aggregate concrete slabs with a surface made of small, colorful (and barefoot not very comfortable to walk on) stones, quartzite terrace slabs and granite terrace slabs.

You can buy Nano-Tec terrace slabs with a shell look that repel water and dirt with their special coating, there are water-blasted terrace slabs, sanded terrace slabs with structured surfaces and sealed, and fall protection slabs made of weatherproof and rot-resistant plastic that are easy on the knees. There are terrace slabs that look like wooden planks that are structured silver-gray, that have been shot-blasted in yellow or pink or that show clear efflorescence in sandstone “Multi-Brown”.

There are porphyry polygonal slabs and quartzite polygonal slabs in a wide variety of colors and granite click tiles, there are even basalt polygonal slabs “Bolivia Black” in Bolivian black, all of which are already available in an average hardware store.

But there are also the designers who produce very special terrace tiles with a wide range of surface structures and color variants and in unimaginable combination options. You should definitely take some time when choosing your terrace tiles.

Conclusion
If you decide on the right method for laying your terrace slabs and the subsurface does not have to be completely expanded or renovated, you can equip your terrace very easily with terrace slabs. If you z. If, for example, you follow the instructions for laying terrace slabs on slab bearings, you will get an easy-care and easy-to-maintain terrace surface that is stable, permeable to water and easy to use. For some terrace areas, other types of laying are better suited, which skilled do-it-yourselfers can do themselves, but which sometimes require a certain amount of specialist knowledge and considerable care at work so that damage does not show up in a short time. 

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